Modern-day demographers view the nations of the world at different stages of what’s called the demographic transition. And what stage they’re in has a lot to do with their power on the world scene.
There are nations at an early stage of the transition, with high fertility rates (number of births per woman). There are nations at a middle stage of the transition, with fertility rates falling but population still growing. And there are nations at the end stage of the transition, where the fertility rate is less than needed to replace the current population.
A demographer named Paul Morland, in a book called THE HUMAN TIDE: How Population Shaped the Modern World, explained how population growth and decline is related to geopolitical power. There are nations with small populations that are rich, and there are nations with large populations have been poor and weak, but there are no…
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