Between July 9 and August 1, 1953 U.S. military airplanes flew over Winnipeg, Manitoba, dusting residents with zinc cadmium sulfide. Zinc cadmium sulfide is used as a fluorescent tracer, a way to monitor dispersion of radioactive and chemical weapon fallout. According to research by St. Louis sociology professor Lisa Martino-Taylor in her recently published book “Behind the Fog”, Canada willingly participated in what they believed a test of “chemical fog to protect Winnipeg in the event of a Russian attack”. America neglected to divulge zinc cadmium sulfide lurked in that fog.
In 1964 American military returned, crop dusting oblivious residents of Suffield and Medicine Hat, Alberta. Declassified documents detail U.S. military plans to “advance” experiments to include radioactive phosphorus-32 and nerve agent VX. By combining the two, America hoped to create a radioactive nerve agent. Internal memos discuss transporting 100 pounds of VX to Suffield. Additional memos inventory available hospital beds around Suffield. Fortunately America never got around to testing their project on Canadian citizens.
As experimentation without consent goes – Canada got off easy. It would be rude to complain over a foreign government misting a few hundred thousand Canadians with dubious chemical compounds.It wasn’t as if they spared their citizens, millions of Americans went about their lives blissfully unaware of Operation LAC ( Large Area Coverage ) spritzing them with odorless, colorless particles of zinc cadmium sulfide.To this day America stands by a 1997 National Research Council report declaring-
“After an exhaustive, independent review requested by Congress we have found no evidence that exposure to zinc cadmium sulfide at these levels could cause people to become sick,” said committee chair Rogene Henderson, senior scientist, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.M. “Even when we assume the worst about how this chemical might behave in the lungs, we conclude that people would be at a higher risk simply from living in a typical urban, industrialized area for several days or, in some cases, for months.”
Violation of medical ethics, international law and military policy has bigger fish to fry than zinc cadmium sulfide.America blisters with contemptible examples of human experimentation without consent. The link below is a mind blowing testament to flagrant disregard for human rights established in the Nuremberg Code of 1947 –
August 20, 1947: Judgment at Nuremberg: 16 out of 23 doctors were found guilty of crimes against humanity. The Nuremberg verdict also set forth the parameters of “Permissible Medical Experiments” known as the Nuremberg Code.
The Nuremberg Code laid the foundation for biomedical ethics mandating that medical experiments conducted on human beings must conform to well-defined humane, ethical standards; foremost is immutable standard:
The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential;
The information sought is “unprocurable by other methods or means of study;
The anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment;
The experiment is designed “to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering or injury;”
Risks to subjects be minimized to protect against “even remote possibilities of injury, disability or death.
The Nuremberg Code makes clear that ethical standards protecting individual human rights supersede arguments invoking the “greater good of society.”
America fancied itself above the Nuremberg Code. Government didn’t stop at inmates, institutionalized psychiatric patients and developmentally challenged children, any citizen was fair game.
We’ve all heard of Syphilis experimentation, but how many know of Dr. Saul Krugman spoon feeding hepatitis infected feces to mentally disabled children.http://ahrp.org/1955-1970-saul-krugman-md-conducted-despicable-medical-experiments-at-willowbrook/ , refrigeration experimentation on inmates http://ahrp.org/1940s-a-series-of-hypothermia-experiments-at-harvard-and-the-university-of-cincinnati-subjected-mental-patients-prolonged-to-freezing-temperatures/, injecting prisoners with beef blood http://ahrp.org/1942-edward-cohn-md-a-harvard-biochemist-injected-prisoners-with-beef-blood/ , dousing unsuspecting indigenous citizens of Point Hope, Alaska with radioactive material http://ahrp.org/1958-1962-project-chariot/, or horrors at Holmesburg prison http://ahrp.org/1951-1974-dr-albert-kligman-conducted-many-hundreds-of-painful-non-therapeutic-experiments-on-prisoners-at-holmesburg-prison/
Human experimentation without consent is an ugly truth, a callous end justifies the means disregard for basic human rights. Much as we’d like to believe government safeguards citizens, common sense dictates a measure of caution. History proves ethics are subjective.