Electric Elephant


My guess is the majority of people asked to name the “father” of electricity would answer Thomas Edison. Edison was a remarkable man; he held over 1000 patents, gave us phonographs, light bulbs, DC electric currents, and an electrocuted elephant.

Edison ruled the roost during early industrialised electrical power; his light bulb the best invention since steam engines. An astute visionary, he still struggled with technical bumps in his road. Enter Nicola Tesla, a Serbian immigrant to America in 1884.

Edison hired Tesla as a electrical engineer at Edison Machine Works. Tesla proved his value almost immediately;  basic work quickly abandoned by a request to redesign Edison’s DC generator. Tesla claimed he knew how to re-work designs for Edison motors and generators – Edison promised Tesla $50,000 if his redesign proved to be efficient and economical as promised. Tesla kept his end of the bargain, Edison laughed it off, saying Tesla didn’t understand he was joking, and lacked the ability to grasp American humour. Edison offered a raise of $10 a week  (Tesla was receiving $18 a week) – Tesla walked, the feud was on.

1886 saw Tesla form the Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing company – based on arc lighting systems patented by Tesla. He knocked heads with investors by insisting AC was the current of choice. Their lack of vision saw him fired, penniless and digging ditches until 1887 when Tesla Electric Company formed on the bank roll of more enlightened money. By 1888 he patented his AC induction motor. George Westinghouse caught wind, bought the design for $60,000, stocks perks and a $2.50 royalty for every AC horsepower each motor spat out. iced with a $2000 dollar a month salary to work at Westinghouse in Pittsburgh designing AC powered street cars. Ultimately Tesla failed to incorporate his AC vision to Pittsburgh street transportation and Edison’s direct current prevailed. Despite a minor street car victory, Edison read the writing on the wall.

Edison had a plan – a grand standing circus side show of a plan – he would demonstrate the danger and folly of Tesla’s current. He would put on a “show”, a campaign worthy of mention in the spin doctoring publicist marketing hall of fame. Edison decided public demonstrations of death by alternating current were the answer to waning interest in DC power applications.

Edison began tentatively – public electrocution of stray dogs and cats. A few cows and horses followed – each event built around an exuberant “this could happen to you” theme. On January 4, 1903, Edison staged his final “show” for 1,500 onlookers. Luna Park Zoo at Coney Island had an uppity elephant to dispatch – Edison sent “Topsy” to her grave – feeding her cyanide soaked carrots moments before death ( a little insurance on the deal) – the execution caught on film and contained in the link below. I haven’t the stomach to watch it myself.

http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/01/dayintech_0104

Below are links from inventors.com – first Edison, then Tesla.

http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bledison.htm

http://inventors.about.com/od/tstartinventions/a/Nikola_Tesla.htm